Education of Children with Special Needs in Ethiopia: Analysis of the Rhetoric of „Education For All‟ and the Reality on the Ground

  • Belay Tefera
  • Fantahun Admas
  • Missaye Mulatie

Abstract

The Ethiopian Government appears to show commitment to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and „Education For All‟ (EFA) by ratifying different international conventions and enshrining them in its various domestic laws, policies, strategies, and programs. However, the reality on the ground indicates that there is limited progress towards implementing these legal instruments when it comes to the education of children with special needs. This study compares the rhetoric of „„education for all‟‟ and the ground reality. The methods employed included, first and foremost, consultation of relevant legal framework (FDRE Constitution), policy (FDRE Education and Training Policy), program (ESDPs), national directive (GTP) and strategy documents (SNE strategy). Then, secondary data were employed from statistical publications of Ministry of Education mainly from 2008/9-2012/13. More importantly, almost all accessible local empirical investigations and student dissertations on the education of children with special needs or inclusive education in Ethiopia from the inception till 2014/15 were also reviewed. The „Curriculum Relation Model‟ of inclusive education was used to analyze and synthesize literature and data. The major observation from the analysis indicates that the education of children with special needs was alarmingly low. The analysis revealed that the proper realization of inclusion for children with special needs is less likely even in the time to come. Hence, it was underscored, on the one hand, that there is a need to tame ambitions to the principle of „education for some‟ rather than „education for all‟, through „any available educational modality‟ (may not necessarily be pure inclusive approach type) and, on the other hand, reverse the top-down inclusive approach (passed from international and national call, slogan, and approach) to a bottom-up initiative of a more innovative, culturally sensitive, cost-effective, and community resource-based inclusive model school, which can successively be refined, and then gradually scale up lessons.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abate Lakew (2001). Teachers Attitude towards Inclusion of Children with Disabilities into Regular Schools: The Case of Some Selected Schools in Addis Ababa. Unpublished MA Thesis, Addis Ababa University. Abebe Gebreselassie (2001). Attitudes of Teachers and Students Regarding. The Integration of Hearing Impaired Students into Regular Classes. Unpublished MA Thesis. Addis Ababa University. Abebe Yehualawork, Pirttimaa, R. and Saloviita, T. (2015). Inclusion of students with disabilities in formal vocational education programs in Ethiopia. International Journal of Special Education, 30 (2), 1-10. ACPF (2011). Children with Disabilities in Ethiopia: The Hidden Reality. Addis Ababa: The African Child Policy Forum. ACRWC (1999). African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. OAU Doc. Ainscow, M. (1994). Towards inclusive schooling. British Journal of Special Education, 24, (1), 24-54. Ainscow, M., Booth, T., Dyson, A., Farrell, P., Frankham, J., Gallannaugh, F., Howes, A., and Smith.R. (2006). Improving Schools, Developing Inclusion. London: Routledge. Alemayehu Tefera (2004). Assessing the Status, Problems, and Prospectus of Disabled Business Women in Ethiopia. A welcome speech delivered in the workshop organized. Annexed in the proceeding of the workshop.
Anto Arkato (2004). The Educational Challenges of Integrated Blind Students: The Case of Sodo Comprehensive High School. Unpublished MA Thesis, Addis Ababa University. Armstrong, D., Armstrong, A. C. and Spandagou, I. (2011). Inclusion: by choice or by chance? International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15 (1), 29-39. Asrat Dagnew (2013). Factors Affecting the Implementation of Inclusive Education in Primary Schools of Bahir Dar Town Administration. Education Research Journal, 3, (3), 59- 6. Ayalew Shibeshi (1996). School Discipline and Corporal Punishment in Ethiopian Schools. In proceedings of Research Papers on the Situation of Children and Adolescents in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa University. Balcha G. (1998). Children and Corporal Punishment in Jimma: The Attitude and Practices of Patents. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences, 8. (2), 73-81. Barton, L. (1993).The struggle for citizenship: the case of disabled people. Disability, Handicap and Society, 8, (3), 235- 248. Befekadu Tolera and Tsegaye Dadda (1997). Procedural Manual for the Police Working in Child Protection Unit. Region 14 Police Commission, Forum for Street Children and Radda Barnen-Sweden, Addis Ababa. Belay Hagos and Dessalegn Chalchisa (1999). Guidance and Counseling Skills for Field Practitioners. FSCE, Child Development Center, Addis Ababa.
Belay Hagos et al. (2001). Local Perceptions of Children’s Needs and Rights in North Wollo of Ethiopia. ANPPCAN- Ethiopian Chapter in Collaboration with Save the Children-Denmark, Addis Ababa. Belay Tefera (2007). Research and innovation towards a demonstration project in inclusive education: Baseline assessment of the pilot school for practicing inclusive education in Ethiopia. In Tirussew Tefera and Alemayehu Teklemariam (eds.), Proceedings of an International Conference on inclusive Education and competence building in special needs education, PP. 28-56. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Belay Tefera, Daniel Desta and Teka Zewdie (2004). Inclusive education for children with special needs: The Ethiopian experience. A Research report. Department of Psychology, College of Education, Addis Ababa University. Biher Yonas (2009). Problems associated with violence against women with disabilities-analytical study: The case of members of Ethiopian with disabilities National Association in Addis Ababa. Unpublished MA Thesis, Department of Special Needs Education, Addis Ababa University. Butler, R. and Bowlby, S. (1997). Bodies and spaces: an exploration of disabled people's experiences of public space, environment and planning development. Society and Space, 15 (4), 379-504. Carson, G. (2009). The Social Mode of Disability. Scottish Accessible Information Forum. Accessed on 23 May 2015. Chernet Takele (2007). Raising a Child with Intellectual Disabilities in Ethiopia: What Do Parents Say? Paper Accepted for Presentation at Refereed Conference of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, Illinois.
Corman, N. (2014). Barriers to inclusive practices, strategic responses, and individual outcomes. Paper presented in Disability Discussion Form, Chermalia. CSA, Central Statistics Authority (2008). Summary and Statistical Report of the 2007 Population and Housing Census. FDRE Population Census Commission. Addis Ababa. Csie, G (2002). Making Special Education Inclusive: from Research to Practice. London: David Fulton Publishers. Dagnachew Abebe (2010). Knowledge, attitude and classroom practices of regular class teachers in including students with intellectual disability in regular classes of primary schools in Addis Ababa. Unpublished MA thesis, Special Needs Education, Addis Ababa University. Daniel Tefera and Gobena Daniel (1998). A Study of Child Abuse and Neglect in Addis Ababa Elementary Schools. Proceedings of the national workshop on studies of varies issues concerning children and families in Ethiopia 4-5 August 1998, Addis Ababa. Dawit Tessentu (2014). Exploring academic barriers to students with disabilities at Addis Ababa main campus. Unpublished MA Thesis, School of Social work, Addis Ababa University. Demeke Gessesse (2007). History of early childhood education in Ethiopia. In Belay Tefera and Abebaw Minaye (eds). Child rights, childhood education and the use of mother tongue in schools: A voyage to reconstructing the Ethiopian child. Proceedings of the Seventh National Conference of the Ethiopian Psychologists‟ Association.
Demisew Abebe (2014). Inclusive Education Practices of Some Primary Schools in Yeka Sub City. Unpublished MA Thesis, Department of Special Needs Education, Addis Ababa University. Desalegn T/Giorgis (2006). Major Academic Problems of Visually Impaired Students in Inclusive Classrooms of Two Selected Preparatory Schools of Addis Ababa. Unpublished MA Thesis, Addis Ababa University. Desalegn Abebe (2007). Educational Problems of Blind Students: The Case of Menilik II and Negus Teklehaymanot Regular Primary Schools. Unpublished MA Thesis, Addis Ababa University. EMIS, Education Management Information Systems (2000). Education Statistics Annual Abstract 1992 E.C. (1999-2000). Ministry of Education, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. EMIS, Education Management Information Systems (2013). Education Statistics Annual Abstract 2005 E.C. (2012-2013). Ministry of Education, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ENDAN, Ethiopian National Disability Action Network (2010). Research on Standard Disability Survey Tools and Measurement. Addis Ababa. ESDP, Education Sector Development Program III (ESDP III), 2005/2006 – 2010/2011, Program Action Plan. Ministry of Education, Ethiopia. Etenesh Amanu (2000). The Role of Teachers in the Implementation of Inclusive Education. Unpublished MA Thesis, Addis Ababa University.
Fiji, N. (2006). Promoting Inclusive Education to Achieve Quality Education for All Implementing the Forum Basic Education Action Plan. Gezahegne Beyene and Yinebeb Tizazu (2010). Attitudes of Teachers towards Inclusive Education. The Ethiopia Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences, 6 (1), 89-96. Hiwot Abebe (2011). The right to education of children with intellectual disability and its implementation in Addis Ababa. Unpublished MA Thesis. Faculty of Law, Addis Ababa University. Hornby, G. (2012). Inclusive education for children with Special educational needs: a critique of Policy and practice in New Zealand. Journal of International and Comparative Education, 1 (1), 52-60. Jennings, et al. (2011). Social Assessment for Education Sector. Ethiopia department for social development. (ed.) JICA and IDCJ, Japan International Cooperation Agency Planning and Evaluation Department and International Development Center of Japan. (2012). Basic Education Sector Analysis Report, Ethiopia. Education for children with disabilities and Inclusive Education. JICA, Japan International Cooperation Agency Planning and Evaluation Department (2002). Country Profile on Disability: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Johnsen, B. (2001). Curricula for the Plurality of Individual Learning Needs. In Berit H. Johnsen and Miriam D. Skjorten (Edrs.), Special Needs Education: An Introduction, PP.255-304.
Kassie Shifere Bishaw (2013). Inclusive Teaching Involving Visually Impaired Students In English Language Teaching (ELT) Settings. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, Department of English, Andhra University, Viskhapatnam, India. Lewis, I. (2009). Reaching the marginalized: Education for Disabled People in Ethiopia and Rwanda. Paper commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2010, UNESCO. Mekdes Gebretensay (2007). Attitude of Parents on the Inclusion of Children with Mental Retardation: The Case of Two Centers in Addis Ababa. Unpublished MA Thesis, Addis Ababa University, School of Graduate Studies. Mercer K. (1970). Developing Inclusive Schools. University of Cambridge, Institute of Education, Monograph, 31, 3. Ministry of Education (1994). The new Education and Training Policy of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ministry of Education (2007). Directory of Special needs education Services, equipment and materials. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ministry of Education (2012). Special Needs Education program strategy: Emphasizing inclusive education to meet the UPE and EFA goals. Federal Ministry of Education, Addis Ababa. Ministry of Education (2001/2). Educational Statistics Annual Abstract. Addis Ababa. Ministry of Education (2006). Special Needs Education Program Strategy Emphasizing Inclusive Education to Meet the UPEC and EFA Goals. Ministry of Education, Addis Ababa.
Ministry of Education (2010). Education Sector Development Plan (ESDP) – IV Monitoring Report. Minsistry of Finance and Economic Development (2010). National Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) of Ethiopia (2010/11 - 2014-15): Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MoFED), Addis Ababa. Mohammedhayat Ibrahim (2013). Status of Inclusive Education of Hearing Impaired Students in Primary Schools: The case of Yekatit 23 Special Primary School and Mekanissa School for the Deaf in Addis Ababa. Unpublished MA Thesis. Institute of Educational Research, Addis Ababa University. Mont, D. (2007). Measuring Disability Prevalence. Social Policy Discussion Paper No 0706. World Bank. Oswald, L. and Forlin, L. (2016). Supporting the support system of inclusive education. Colloquium of Inclusion for justice, Atbara, Unison. Popping K, Maloney, S. (2005). The Rout Ledge/ Flamer Reader in Inclusive Education. London: Routledge. SADPD, Secretariat of the African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2010). Baseline Study On the Status of Persons with Disabilities and the Influence of the African Decade Pronouncement in Ethiopia. Final REPORT. Savollainen, H. (1995). Special Education and Rehabilitation. IER Flambeau, 3, 2.
Shimelis Tefera (2002). The Local School for All: The Case of Kechene Debreselam Elementary and Junior High School In Its Context In Addis Ababa. Unpublished MA thesis. Department of Special Needs Education, University of Oslo. Simon, T. (2003). Libraries and Information Services For Visually Impaired Students In Ethiopian Higher Education Institutions: A Case Of Addis Ababa University. Addis Ababa University Library, Reference Department. Solia, E. and Keller, F. (2015). Inclusion beyond social justice: Knowing what works well. Colloquim of Inclusion for justice, Atbara, Unison. Tefera Tirago (2006). Prospects and Problems of the Implementation of Policies on Special Needs in Ethiopia: The Case of SNNPR. Unpublished MA Thesis. Addis Ababa University, School of Graduate Studies. Tesfaye Alemu (2005). The Attitude of Special and Regular Class Teachers Towards the Inclusion of Individuals with Mental Retardation. Unpublished MA Thesis, Addis Ababa University, School of Graduate Studies. Thomas, G. and Feiler, A. (1988). Planning for Special Needs: A Whole School Approach. T.J. Press Ltd: Padstow, Cornwall. Tilahun Achaw Messaria (2002). The schooling situation of hearing impaired pupils in four regular schools of Bahirdar and Debretabor, Addis Ababa University. Tirusew Teferra (2005). Disability in Ethiopia: Issues, Insights and Implications. Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University Printing Press.
Tirusew Teferra and Alemayehu Teklemariam (2007). Including the excluded: Integrating disability into the EFA Fast Track Initiative processes and National Education Plans in Ethiopia. London: World Vision. Tirusew Teferra (1999). Inclusion of Children with Disability in Regular Schools Challenge and Opportunities. The Ethiopian Journal Education, 11 (1), 6-9. Tirusew Teferra (2006). Overview Of The Development Of Inclusive Education In The Last Fifteen Years In Ethiopia‟.In Savolainen, H, Matero, M and Kokkala, H (eds), When All Means All: Experiences in Three African Countries with EFA and Children with Disabilities, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, Helsinki. Tirusew Teferra et al. (1995). Baseline Survey on Disabilities in Ethiopia. Commercial Printing Press: Addis Ababa. Tirusew Teferra (2001). Gender and Disability in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Journal of Development Research, 23, 1: 79-109. Tirussew Teferra, Alemayehu Teklemariam, Belay Hagos , Fantahun A dmas., Moges Abey, Sewalem Tsega, Tilahun Achaw, and Yirgashewa Bekele (2013). Manual for Employability of Persons with Disabilities in Ethiopia. Department of Special needs education: AAU. Tomlinson, S. (1982). A Sociology of Special Education. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. UN (1975). Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons, UN. UN (1948). Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UN.
Wondwossen Kebede (2014). Exploring the problems of Inclusive Education on the Psycho-Social Development and Academic Achievement of Deaf Students. The Case of Mekanisa School for the Deaf. Unpublished MA Thesis. School of Social Work, Addis Ababa University. World Bank and World Health Organization (2011). World Report on Disability. Washington, D. C. World Health Organization (2002). Towards a Common Language for Functioning, Disability and Health the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). WHO/EIP/GPE/CAS/01.3 Geneva. World Vision (2007). Education‟s Missing Millions. Including Disabled Children in Education through Efa/Fti Processes and National Sector Plans. Main Report of Study Findings. World Vision International.
Published
2015-06-02
How to Cite
TEFERA, Belay; ADMAS, Fantahun; MULATIE, Missaye. Education of Children with Special Needs in Ethiopia: Analysis of the Rhetoric of „Education For All‟ and the Reality on the Ground. The Ethiopian Journal of Education, [S.l.], v. 35, n. 1, p. 45-97, june 2015. ISSN 0425-4414. Available at: <http://ejol.aau.edu.et/index.php/EJE/article/view/264>. Date accessed: 21 sep. 2017.