Radiological Impacts of Natural Radioactivity in Locally Produced Tobacco Products in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
Radionuclides are found naturally in air, water and soil. They are even found in vegetation, consumer products and in human body. Everyone on the planet is exposed to some background level of ionizing radiation through external exposures that occurs as a result of irradiation, and internal exposures that occurs as a result of ingestion and inhalation. Studies have shown that tobacco contains minute quantities of radioisotopes from uranium and thorium-decay series which are radioactive and carcinogenic. Tobacco product increases both external and internal exposure due to these radioisotopes. In fact, tobacco products have been considered to be one of the most significant causes of lung cancer. Owing to the large-scale consumption of tobacco in Nigeria at the present time, locally produced tobacco products in Nigeria were collected from the market and the naturally-occurring 238U and 232Th decay series, as well as non-series decay 40K in these products were measured using γ-ray spectrometer. The radiological impacts of the radionuclides in these products were assessed from their specific activities. The average values of the absorbed dose rate were 19.72 and 17.59 nGy h-1 for snuff and cigarette products respectively. The average values of the effective doses due to daily inhalation of smoke by consumers from one wrap of snuff and one stick of cigarette products is 592.32 and 66.62 μSv yr-1 respectively. Similarly, the values of the radium equivalent activity index for snuff and cigarette samples were 40.95 and 38.95 Bq kg-1 respectively. Also the external radiation hazard index were 0.12 and 0.11 for snuff and cigarette samples respectively while the internal radiation hazard index were 0.17 and 0.15 for the two samples respectively. The average excess lifetime cancer risk (x 10-3) values for daily inhalation of smoke from one wrap of snuff and one (1) stick of cigarette were 2.07 and 0.23 x 10-3 respectively. The estimated values of some of these parameters were found to be lower than the recommended limit by UNSCEAR (2000). However, the effective dose poses a serious health risk to addicted consumers of the product when three (3) or more wraps of snuff and one (1) or more packs of cigarette products are consumed daily. The mean excess lifetime cancer risks values estimated were also much higher than the recommended limits by UNSCEAR (2000). This then makes the risk of suffering cancer and other radiation injuries to be high.
Avwiri G.O., Ononugbo C.P & Nwokeoji I.E. 2014.Radiation hazard indices and excess lifetime cancer risk in soil, sediment and water around mini-okoro/oginigba creek, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Comprehensive J. Environment and Earth Sciences, 3(1): 38-50.
Barrera, R & Werusman, E. W. 1966.Tobacco Science. Nature, 10:157, cited in Martel, E.A, 1974. Radioactivity of tobacco trichomes and insoluble cigarette smoke particles. Nature, 249: 215-217. Borgerding, M & Klus, H. 2005. Analysis of complex mixtures-cigarette smoke. Journal of Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, 57:43–73.
Colangelo, C. H., Huguet, M. R., Palacios, M. A& Oliveira, A. A. 1992. Levels of 210Po in some beverages and in tobacco. J. Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 16: 195-202.
Critchley, J. A & Unal, B. 2003. Health effects associated with smokeless tobacco: a systematic review. Thorax, 58:435-439.
Desalu, O. O., Iseh, K. R., Olokoba, A. B., Salawu, F. K & Danburam, A. 2010. Smokeless tobaccouse in adult Nigerian population. Journal of Clinical Practice, 13(4):1-6.
More inside the PDF
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE POLICY
The Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science accepts the manuscripts for consideration with the understanding that the manuscript has not been published and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Only original articles will be considered for publication if they have been published previously as abstracts, but not if they have been published previously as extended abstract (>1000 words). This applies to both electronic and print versions of the journal. The authors should assign copyright ownership to the Editorial Office of MEJS in the event that the manuscript is accepted for publication in the Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science. All accepted manuscripts must be accompanied by a copyright statement signed by all authors. A copy of the copyright form will be supplied along with the final reviewed version of the manuscript that is sent for final proof- reading. Authors may make multiple copies of the form if necessary and send to the Editorial Office with author’s signature(s) even individually.
All articles published by Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science (MEJS) are Open Access under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0). Under this license, authors retain ownership of the copyright for their content, and anyone can copy, distribute, or reuse articles as long as the author and original source are properly cited. In all these cases for re-use, the authors will be given proper credit to the original publication in MEJS.