Social Vulnerability Indices of Seasonal Rural-to-Rural Migrant: A Comparative Study of Migrant-Sending and Non-Migrant Households in Northwest Ethiopia


  • Tegegne Derbe Department of Rural Development and Agricultural Extension
  • Degesew Melak Agriculture and Environmental Science, University of Gondar, Ethiopia
  • Beyene Derso Corresponding author email:


Livelihood, Migrant, Principal Component Analysis, Social Vulnerability


Subsistence agriculture is the base of smallholder farmers’ livelihood in Ethiopia,
though it is challenged by different risks. Seasonal migration is therefore a common
phenomenon for rural poor people in western Ethiopia to reduce risks. As a result,
the increased migration of people is the manifestation of the pervasive risk of the
day in the country. Hence, this study investigated the social vulnerability of seasonal migrant-sending households comparing with non-migrant households. Two-stage
sampling technique was adopted to select 188 households for primary data collection using household interview schedule, key informant interview, and focused group
discussion. Also, relevant published and unpublished documents were reviewed to
collect secondary information’s. Descriptive statistics like mean, percentage, and inferential statistics like Chi-square were employed for data analysis. The Principal
Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to develop the social vulnerability index (SVI).
The result of data analysis showed that migrant-sending households are less vulnerable than non-migrant households (X2=9.0823, p<05). The income from migrant
household members increased migrant sending households’ livelihood diversification,
and reduced the food shortage in the households compared to non-migrant households. This paper concludes that seasonal rural-to-rural migration in the Northwest
Ethiopia is found to be livelihood risk minimization and means of livelihood. Thus,
pay attention by stakeholders is demanded to enhance the positive impact of seasonal rural-to-rural migration to the livelihood of migrant sending households