Morbidity and Mortality of Neonates Admitted in Jimma University Specialized Hospital Paediatrics Neonatal Ward: A One Year Retrospective Analysis
Introduction: The first 4 weeks of life carries one of the highest risks of death of any 4 weeks period in the human lifespan. Reducing Neonatal morbidity and mortality are now a major focus of child health strategies.
Objective: To review the morbidity and mortality pattern of neonates admitted to paediatrics neonatal ward.
Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital neonatal ward from Jan 2012 to Dec 2012.All neonates admitted to neonatal ward between Jan 2012 to Dec 2012 were included in the study. Card review format was adopted for the purpose of data collection after reviewing relevant literatures. SPSS version 16.0 statistical package was used for data analysis. All statistical tests were performed at the 0.05 level of significance; for logistic regression models, the results were presented using 95% confidence interval odds ratios.
Results: A total of 225 neonates were admitted during the study period, of these 60 % were male, 57.6% of mothers who brought the neonate were from the surrounding district. The main causes of admissions were found to be neonatal infections (40%), low birth weight (32.4 %) and prematurity (30.7%). More than two third of them were hospital deliveries, 78.6% and more than half (55%) of neonates were admitted in the first 24 hours of their life. Regarding the outcome, 78.2% of admitted neonates were improved and discharged and the hospital neonatal mortality rate was 15.9%. None of the neonates diagnosed to have neonatal sepsis had blood culture and sensitivity test. The average length of hospital stay was 9.5 days with SD of 8.2 days. Neonates who were diagnosed to have perinatal asphyxia have increased risk of death [AOR=7.7, (95%C.I:2.49-23.70)]. Weight at admission and perinatal asphyxia were found to have stastically significant association with mortality (p- value <0.05).
Conclusion: Most of the neonates were diagnosed with neonatal infection, prematurity, and Low birth weight. The hospital neonatal death rate seen in this study is high; which indicates the need for improving the quality of neonatal care. Limited laboratory investigations were done for admitted neonates; facility pertaining important investigations including blood culture need to be accessible.
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