Trachoma and Associated Factors among School Age Children 4-9 Years in Dire Dawa Administration, Eastern Ethiopia
Background: Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. It greatly affects children particularly young children in developing countries. However, there is a paucity of information in Dire Dawa Administration. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of trachoma and its associated factors among school children aged 4-9 years in Dire Dawa, eastern Ethiopia. Methods: School-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 15-30, 2019 in Dire Dawa Administration. A total of 823 school children aged 4-9 years were examined to identify clinical signs of trachoma. Multistage stratified sampling techniques were used to select the study participants. The data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire and observation check list. Data analysis were done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 25. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify the predictors of trachoma. Statistical significance was considered at a p-value of less than 0.05. Results: The overall prevalence of trachoma was 4.3% (95% CI: 2.9, 5.7), of which 74.3% had Trachomatous inflammation – Follicular, and 25.7% had Trachomatous inflammation- Intense. Family size >5 (AOR=2.24; 95 % CI: 1.53, 8.53), presence of more than 3 school children in the household (AOR=3.30; 95 % CI: 1.37, 5.94), family monthly income <5000 Ethiopian birr (AOR=2.02; 95% CI:1.46,6.25), presence of nasal discharge (AOR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.01,3.37), latrine unavailability (AOR=4.66; 95% CI:2.77, 9.04), presence of flies around the latrine (AOR=6.16; 95% CI:3.67,13.52) and distance of latrine > 10 meters away from the main house (AOR=6.11; 95% CI: 2.41, 11.46) were the factors significantly associated with trachoma. Conclusion: This study revealed that school children aged 4-9 years old were affected by Trachoma. Therefore, it is very crucial to implement the SAFE strategy components, particularly focusing on facial hygiene and environmental sanitation improvement to reduce the problem.
Keywords: Associated Factor; Children Aged 4-9 Years, Dire Dawa; Prevalence; Trachoma.