Effects of Nitrogen Inhibitors and Slow Nitrogen Releasing Fertilizers on Crop Yield, Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Mitigation of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emission
Improving the production and productivity of crops through appropriate nutrient management including nitrogen fertilizer is one of the most important means to satisfy the food demand of the ever increasing world’s population. Consequently, intensive use of nitrogen fertilizers increase cost of production and cause environmental pollution through different forms of nitrogen losses such as nitrate (NO-3) leaching, ammonia (NH3) volatilization and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission. The main aim of this paper is, therefore, to review the effects of nitrogen inhibitors and slow nitrogen releasing fertilizers on crop yield, nitrogen use efficiency and mitigation of N2O emission. Various research results showed that application of nitrification inhibitors (DCD, DMPP, thiosulfate, neem, and N-serve), urease inhibitors such as agrotain, PPD, NBPT and hydroquinone, and slow nitrogen releasing fertilizers like polymer and sulfur coated urea substantially improved nitrogen use efficiency and yield of crops as well as significantly mitigating GHG (N2O) emission. Therefore, application of such technologies has great contribution to reduce environmental pollution caused by intensive utilization of nitrogen fertilizers while increasing crop yields.