Journal of African Development Studies <p>Journal of African Development Studies- JADS was launched in 2008 , and relaunched in 2019, after a period of discontinuation, to engage in academic as well as policy-oriented research that contribute towards supporting the teaching and training mission of the University- founded on sound scientific research findings and informing and challenging policy formulation and implementation on matters of development in its broad range, notably, social, economic, environmental, political and related cross-cutting dimensions. </p> Ethiopian Civil Service University en-US Journal of African Development Studies 2079-0155 The Effect of Tourism on Current Account Balance in Ethiopia <p><span class="fontstyle0">Ethiopia is one of the countries that experience a persistent current account deficit, despite it has recently realized a steady double-digit economic growth. International tourism can serve as an alternative means to minimize current account deficit through generating foreign currency to the economy. Therefore, this paper investigated the effect of tourism on current account balance in Ethiopia. Besides, causality between tourism and current account balance is tested. Further, this study has tried to identify the main challenges of tourism development sector in Ethiopia. ARDL methods of co-integration and Granger causality test was used to explore the relationship and causality between the variables, respectively. The result from the econometric analysis confirmed that tourism industry positively and significantly affects current account balance, implying it is an alternative means to minimize current account deficit through generating foreign currency to the economy. The pair-wise Granger-causality test also confirmed the existence of unidirectional causality that runs from tourism receipt to current account balance. However, the trend analysis and qualitative analysis clearly showed that the tourism sector has been challenged by many factors. Lack of infrastructures development, poor and inadequate tourist facility (quality and adequacy); lack of qualified manpower; lack of peace and security; lack of stakeholder’s collaboration; inadequate promotional or marketing works and lack of awareness and low participation of the community are among the major challenges mentioned by the respondents. Hence, coordinated and integrated public intervention aimed at further developing tourism sector and curbing the existing bottlenecks in the sector is necessary to fully utilize the constructive role of tourism industry in minimizing the persistent current account deficit in Ethiopia.</span></p> Kidanemariam Gidey Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of African Development Studies 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 8 2 5 20 10.56302/jads.v8i2.3257 Inclusiveness of Wage Employment and Determinants of Wage Incomes in Ethiopia <p><em>Unemployment is one of the critical problems of developing countries, including Ethiopia. Agriculture is not only the mainstay of the economy of Ethiopia, but it is also a major contributor of employment opportunities for its citizens. The government of Ethiopia promotes commercialization of the agricultural sector through large-scale farming investment by the private sector. The article examined inclusiveness of large-scale farming and factors that determine wage incomes earned by plantation workers in Ethiopia. Both primary and secondary data were generated from households, and large-scale farming companies. Data were subjected to a modified Mincer's earnings function to see which group of the society benefited from wage employment. Inclusiveness in plantation agriculture in the form of wage employment was very limited to the local indigenous population in Gambella and Benshangul Gumuz regional states due to lack of prior farming experiences of the workers. Men and those with technical trainings received better incomes from wage employment. Regional variation in wage rates was observed among Oromia, Gambela and Benshangul Gumuz regional states due to harsh working environment and low availability of workforce. Inclusion of the local people in wage employment should receive attention by owners and the government, which will otherwise affect smooth and sustainable operation of the farms. Further, it calls for an intervention to enhance the technical skills of workers and improve women’s participation and earnings in plantation agriculture.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Plantation agriculture; wage employment; large-scale farms; inclusiveness; Mincer earning regression; Ethiopia</em></p> Maru Shete Annelies Zoomers Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of African Development Studies 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 8 2 21 37 10.56302/jads.v8i2.3260 Socio-cultural Considerations in Environmental Policy Formulation and Implementation in Ethiopia <p>The idea of policies for holistic social development, healthy communities, and resilient socio-cultural institutions is one of the core issues of literature on sustainable society, development and environment. The nexus between national economic policies, resilient communities, and development is best understood in the context of policies for social development, particularly in terms of building resilient socio-cultural institutions, protecting communities, and ensuring useful traditional knowledge systems. Some research on environment and society in Ethiopia generally focus on policy failures and institutional dysfunctions leading to natural resource degradation and environmental exploitation. Others address increasingly insecure livelihood and political instability as a manifestation of unsuitable society, environment, and development. Further, policy instruments pertaining to environment, and the impact assessments are often analyzed in light of the legal perspective. This study aimed at understanding how existing environmental policy instruments define and represent socio-cultural matters as part of the environment policy and impact assessment frameworks of the country. The study adopted a qualitative method approach through analyzing existing policy documents and interviewing relevant actors. The study found out that while existing instruments do indeed address socio-cultural issues, the main problem lies in adequacy of representation of socio-cultural issues, particularly cultural resources (notably heritages, identities, belief systems social institutions, etc.). More so, the problem lies in the disturbing state of realizing the policy provisions for socio-cultural issues. Policy formulators and implementers’ general level of socio-culturally sensitive awareness, attitude and commitment is a key gap.</p> Zerihun Doda Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of African Development Studies 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 8 2 38 49 10.56302/jads.v8i2.3261 Economic Effects of COVID-19 on Micro and Small Enterprises in Addis Ababa Surrounding Towns of Oromia National Regional State <p><em>Micro and small businesses contribute a lot to Ethiopia's transition from an agrarian to an industrial economy. But now, the sector’s economic operations are affected by CVID-19. Accordingly, this study aimed to examine the economic effect of the COVID-19 on micro and small enterprises in Addis Ababa surrounding towns of Oromia National Regional State. To achieve this objective, quantitative data were collected from 436 MSE’s by questionnaire that represents the situation of the enterprises before and after the outbreak of the pandemic in December 2020. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics method. The findings of the study showed that </em><em>at the beginning of March 2020, before the outbreak of the pandemic, an enterprise had on average 3.8 workers whereas, after the occurrence of the pandemic, an enterprise had, on average, 2.9 workers. This implies that due to COVID-19, enterprises decrease their workers on average by 0.83 and the mean difference of workers before and after the pandemic was statistically significant at less than 1% probability level. Furthermore, 32.3% of respondents reduced their workers because of the pandemic, 60.55% and 31.02% of enterprises stopped working temporarily and partially (half a day) respectively. On the other hand, the enterprise's annual income for the year 2019 on average was 170,174.4 birr whereas it was birr 127,433.8 for the year 2020 during the pandemic and the mean difference was 42,740.6 birr which is statistically significant at less than 1% probability level. The main challenges enterprises faced during the pandemic were a fall in demand, decline of orders from customers, and lack of operating finance. Based on the findings of the study, training on a business recovery plan development and new line production, an extended debt repayment period, and provision of short-term credit are suggested to make enterprises recover faster from the adverse effect of COVID-19.</em></p> Meshesha Zewde Desalegn Shamemo Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of African Development Studies 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 8 2 50 65 10.56302/jads.v8i2.3262 Opportunities Available and Challenges Faced by Students with Disabilities in Public Universities in Addis Ababa <p><em>This study aimed at assessing opportunities available and challenges faced by students with disabilities (SWDs) in public universities in Addis Ababa. To address the objectives of the study, mixed research approach combining both quantitative and qualitative techniques was used. The data was collected through questionnaires, semi-structured interview, focus group discussions (FGDs) and observation. The quantitative data were analysed through descriptive and inferential statistical techniques while the qualitative data was analysed by using the thematic analysis technique. The findings of this study have indicated that availability of reasonable accommodation services, recognition for best scorers, training &amp; induction programs, establishment of special computer centres, provision of educational materials and assistive devices are the opportunities that SWDs have in each respective university. Conversely, inaccessible infrastructures, absence and/or competency problem of sign language interpreters, weak disability affairs offices, unavailability of effective guidance and counselling service, lack of different entertainment means, difficulty of getting personal assistants and different means of communication on academic/non-academic matters are identified as hindrances to their success. The finding of the study also reveals that most lecturers have negative attitudes toward SWDs. The regression result confirms that accessibility of infrastructures, high school GPA, monthly expenditure of students, occupation of parents, disability type and mother’s education are significantly affecting the academic performance of students with disabilities. Therefore, the public universities &amp; other stakeholders should prepare manual and guidelines that show step-by-step processes that need to be taken to address issues of SWDs. Awareness creation schemes need to be carried out to change the negative attitudes and mainstream the issues of SWDs in all endeavours of the respective universities. &nbsp;</em></p> Abay Akemachew Kidanemariam Gidey Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of African Development Studies 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 8 2 66 85 10.56302/jads.v8i2.3263