Factors in bread preference: A cross-sectional study of the comparison of anthropometric measurements and macronutrient differences according to bread type preferences
Background: Bread is one of the most consumed foods by humankind throughout history. It is important to evaluate the factors affecting the food preferences of individuals and to examine the effect of frequently consumed food on anthropometric measurements and daily energy and macronutrient intake in order to improve public health and develop nutrition policies of society.
Objective: The aim of the current study was two-fold: (1) to determine the factors affecting the bread type preferences of individuals (2) to compare anthropometric measurements and macronutrient differences according to bread type preferences.
Methods: The study was conducted cross-sectional from January to October 2018 with randomly selected 1554 volunteer individuals aged between 18-65 years in Istanbul Province of Turkey. The data of the study were collected through a questionnaire form applied by the face-to-face interview method. Demographic information, anthropometric measurements, the most consumed bread types, and dietary records were examined in the questionnaire form.
Results: It was determined that the preference for white bread was high (%66.3). White bread and whole-grain bread were consumed 159.4±94 g/day and 131.2±89.2 g/day, respectively. BMI and waist circumference were lower, while the difference was not significant. It was determined that the group who preferred whole-grain bread had fewer carbohydrates, higher fiber, higher protein, higher fat, higher saturated fat, and higher cholesterol intakes in their daily diets. Women, having high education status and old-age popularity increased the preference of whole-grain bread 1.73, 3.39, and 1.03 times compared to the preference of white bread (p<0.001).
Conclusion: It has been determined that white bread is preferred more in society. Bread type preference was not associated with anthropometric measurements. It has been determined that the distribution of daily macronutrients of individuals who prefer whole-grain bread is more unbalanced. It was found that gender, educational status, and age were the factors affecting the preference of bread type. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2022; 36(4):000-000]
Keywords: Bread; white bread; nutrition; body mass index; waist circumferences