Prevalence of ocular pseudoexfoliation in Baso and Worena District, central Ethiopia


  • Yonas A. Berhanu
  • Abeba T. Giorgis
  • Abiye M. Alemu


Background: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is an accumulation of fibrillary extracellular material in the anterior segment of the eye. It is the most common identifiable cause of glaucoma.

Objective: To assess the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome and its association with high intraocular pressure and glaucoma in Baso and Worena District, central Ethiopia.

Methods and subjects: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Baso and Worena District, central Ethiopia, from 09 January to 08 February 2018. After a systematic random selection of participants, a questionnaire was administered. Study participants were then examined to assess the anterior segment of their eyes (using a portable slit lamp), measure intraocular pressure (using a Tono-pen AVIA®), and assess the dilated fund us of each eye (using a direct ophthalmoscope).

Results: A total of 682 people above 40 years of age were examined. The study participants’ ages ranged from 40 to 89 years. The prevalence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome was found to be 13.2% for patients ≥40 years old (90/682), 17.6% for those ≥50 years old (85/483), 23.1% for those ≥60 years old (74/320), 34.1% for those ≥70 years old (42/123), and 27.8% for those ≥80 years old (5/18). Seventy one (78.9%) of the 90 participants who were found to have pseudoexfoliation syndrome had bilateral involvement and 19 (21.1%) had unilateral involvement. Prevalence increased with age and was highest for those aged 70 to 79. In twenty nine (32.2%) of the 90 cases, pseudoexfoliation syndrome was associated with high intraocular pressure, and 13 (14.4%) had high intraocular pressure and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma.

Conclusions and recommendations: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is common in Baso and Worena District, central Ethiopia. It represents one of the major risk factors for glaucoma. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2020; 34(1):54-58]

Key words: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome, glaucoma, intraocular pressure