Risk of HIV and associated factors among infants born to HIV-positive women in northwest Ethiopia
Background: The high rate of HIV morbidity and mortality among pregnant and lactating women, and their infants, is still major health problem in Ethiopia. This study aims to assess the risk and determinants of mother-to-child transmission of HIV among infants born from HIV-positive mothers in West Gojjam Zone, northwest Ethiopia.
Methods: A facility-based, cross-sectional study was carried at prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) clinics in West Gojjam Zone. The study participants were HIV-exposed infants enrolled at PMTCT clinics from 01 January to 30 December 2017 who had a recorded DNA-PCR result. The data sources were PMTCT logbooks and patient charts. Data were entered into Epi Info (version 7) and analyzed using SPSS (version 20.0). Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify associations.
Results: A total of 636 infant records were included in the study. There were 39 cases (6.1%, 95% CI: 4.2, 8.2) of transmission of HIV from mother to child. Home delivery (AOR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.5, 12), infant not receiving antiretroviral prophylaxis at birth (AOR =5.0, 95% CI: 1.6, 17.1), episiotomy (AOR = 5.1, 95% CI: 1.9, 15.1), and mixed infant feeding practices (AOR = 6.0, 95% CI: 2.1, 16.4) were significantly associated with mother-to-child transmission of HIV in the study.
Conclusions and recommendations: The risk of HIV infection among infants born from HIV-positive mothers was high. Predictors for mother-to-child transmission of HIV were episiotomy, home delivery, mixed feeding and absence of antiretroviral prophylaxis at birth. [Ethiop.J. Health Dev. 2019; 33(1):53-58]
Keywords: Mother-to-child transmission, HIV-exposed, infants, Ethiopia